Home | 18.022 | Chapter 16 | Section 16.2

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Given a square (n by n) matrix A and a number x, we can form A2, or 5In + 7A + A2 or even In + (xA) + (xA)2 + (xA)3 + ... which we can identify with (In - xA)-1, if it exists.
To see this multiply it by In - xA. If the series converges you get In.