




We can integrate such polynomials term by term
If either m or n is odd, we can make a trigonometric substitution to reduce I's integral to that of a polynomial;
suppose m is odd = 2k+1
then writing
,
we get
which can be expanded and the result integrated term by term using the product rule.
If both m and n are even, there are three different approaches that can be used to integrate I._{ }
Suggested method
Use the identities
to reduce I to a polynomial of degree (m + n) / 2 in cos2x; the odd terms of this polynomial can be integrated by the previous method, the even terms reduced to a polynomial of degree at most (m + n) / 4 in cos4x, and so on.
Alternate method I: Demoivre
Use DeMoivre's theorem:
to reduce I to a sum of imaginary exponential which can be integrated like any other exponentials and then regrouped to form sines and cosines again; or regrouped into sines and cosines and then integrated.
Alternate method II: Integrating by parts
Integrate by parts to reduce the integrand from cos^{2k}x to cos^{2k2}x.
You can deduce an ugly formula for from the resulting relation.
du = cosxdx; v = cos^{2k1}x
u = sinx; dv = (2k1)cos^{2k2}xsinxdx
Therefore on iding by 2k, we get
Formulae
The formula obtained in the last method
gives rise to the following results:
where